The Friday Prayer

We gratefully acknowledge and thank Islamic Publications Ltd. for permission to print this excerpt from Everyday Fiqh (vol. 1) by Abdul Aziz Kamal

Excellence of Friday

Friday is the most excellent and distinguished day in the sight of Allah on account of six mertits associated with it. Firstly, it is the day on which the Muslims the world over assemble together at a central places in their habitations for the purpose of Allâh's remembrance, which is followed by the great congregational prayer.It is for the reason that the Holy Prophet has described Friday as the Id day of Muslims. 

In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance, the Arabs called it the It began to be called Jumah, which is an Islamic term, after it was appointed as the day of the Muslim people.

The Jews had fixed Saturday for ritual worship, for according to them, they had been delivered on that day by Allah from the bondage of Pharaoh.

As against this the Christians chose Sunday for the purpose, though it was neither prescribed by Prophet Jesus nor mentioned in the Gospels.

The Christians believe that after crucifixion Jesus rose from the grave and went up to heaven on Sunday. In 321 A.D. the Roman Emperor declared it as a holiday by an official decree.Islam set aside both Saturday and Sunday and as a mark of distinction from the communities,adopted Friday for the congregational service and prayer.As for the other five merits of Friday the Holy Prophet said: 

Friday is the most excellent and distinguished day among the days of the week in the sight of Alláh; so much so much so that it excels both Id-al-Fitr and Id al Adhá day on account of the following five merits:
The Friday Prayer

1 Alláh created Adam on [a] Friday. 

2 He sent him to the earth on this day as his vicegerent, 

3 Adan died on a Friday

4 There is a blessed hour on Friday during which a person is granted anything lawful and good by Allah that he prays for.

Resurrection will take place on [a] Friday; that is why everything in the heavens and the earth including God's most favourite angels and mountains, rivers etc. stand in awe of Friday. (Ibn Májah) 

The Holy Prophet has also said: 

We came to the world last of all, but on the Day of Judgment we shall be the first to enter Paradise.The Jews and the Christians were given the Book of guidance before us and we after them ; they were enjoined to revere Friday, but they differed regarding this. Alláh favoured us with His grace to adhere to His Command; thus they have been left behind : the Jews revere the next day (Saturday) and the Christians the day following that (Sunday). (Mishkát) 
Imám Gházalì says : 
Only that believer is graced with the blessings and benefits of Friday, who looks forward for it most anxiously and eagerly ; and wretched is the negligent one who is least interested in it and who does not even know in the morning which day has dawned (Ihujá al-Ulûm)

Friday Prayer is Obligatory

The Friday Prayer had become obligatory even before the Holy Prophet's migration to Madìnah, though he could not enjoin it on the Muslims on account of the highly unfavourable conditions prevailing then Makkah. However, when the Muslims started migrating to Madinah, the Holy Prophet sent a written instruction to Hadrat Musa b bin Umair, their leader, to the effect: 

Seek nearness to Allàh with two rakahs of Prayer on Friday when the sun has passed over the meridian. Having received this instruction Hadrat Musa offered the first Friday Prayer at Madínah with twelve followers. (Dárquiní)
According to Hadrat Kab ibn Malik and Ibn Sírín, even before this, the Ansàr of Madínah had agreed to mutually observe a congregational prayer on one day in the week. For this purpose they had selected Friday, avoiding [the] Sabbath of the Jews and [the] Sunday of the Christians, and Hadrat As ad ibn Zurrárah had led the first Friday Prayer at Biadah in Madinah with 40 followers.
(Musnad Ahmad, Abú Da ud, Ibn Màjah

On the occasion of the migration the Holy Prophet stayed at Qubà, a suburb of Madínah, for four days. On the fifth day, which was a Friday, he left for Madínah and served the first Friday Prayer in congregation on the way at the place of Baní Sálim ibn Auf.(Ibn Hishám

Command for Friday Prayer: Its Merits and Importance

Friday Prayer is obligatory and this is supported by the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the consensus of the Muslims. It occupies an important place among the distinctive features of Islam. A person who does not believe in the obligatory status of the Friday Prayer falls outside the pale of Islam, and the one who abandons it due to negligence and carelessness, without a genuine reason, becomes a sinner. The Qur’án says: 

O Believers! When you hear the call to the Friday Prayer, hasten to the remembrance of Allah and leave your trading; this is better for you only if you know it. (62 9)
Here remembrance means the Friday Sermon and the congregational service, and hastening implies that one should make necessary preparations for it and attend the mosque promptly.

This unusual stress throws light on the unique importance of the Friday Prayer.

The other prayers can be offered without the congregation and, if missed, can be offered later also. But not so the Friday Prayer. It is conditioned upon congregation and, if missed, cannot be offered later.

Therefore, as soon as the call for it is given, the Believers are commanded to leave their business and trading and hasten to the mosque for the remembrance of Allàh. 

The fact is that the remembrance of Allàh for a little while and bowing and prostrating oneself before Him along with the congregation in full consciousness yield[s] eternal benefits for man far greater in value and worth than the temporary and meagre material gains that he craves for in the world.The Holy Prophet has said : 

1. The Friday Congregational Prayer is obligatory for every Muslim, except the slave, the woman, the child and the sick. (Abú Dà úd) 

2. The Friday Prayer is obligatory on every person who believes in Allàh and the Last day; the one who ignores it on account of sport or fun, or trade and business, will be ignored by Alláh, Who is Pure and Self-Sufficient. (Dáraquini

3. The name of the person who abandons the Friday Prayer without a genuine reason, will be recorded as a hypocrite in the Book (the Preserved Tablet), whose writings can neither be scraped out nor tampered with.(Mishkát

4.I wish I should appoint someone as Imám in my place, and should go and set fire to the houses of the people who stay back at home and neglect the Friday Prayer. (Muslim) 

5. Hadrat Ibn Umair and Hadrat Abú Hurairah have reported that they heard the Holy Prophet say on the pulpit : People are warned against neglecting the Friday Prayer, otherwise Alláh will seal their hearts, and they will be condemned to negligence (for ever). (Muslim

6.The one who hears the call to the Friday Praayer and does not turn up for it on one Friday, and then on the second Friday and the third Friday consecutively, has his heart sealed and is turned a hypocrite (Tabáranì) Alláma Sarakhsi says : 

The Friday Prayer is obligatory according to the Qur’án and the Sunnah and theconsensus of the Muslims. (Al-Mabsút, Vol. II, p. 22) 
Alláma Ibn Hummám says : 
Prayer's obligatory status is established by the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and the consensus of the Ummah is that the person who denies this is outside the pale of Islam." (Fath-al-Qadir, Vol. I, p. 407)
Hadrat Ibn Abbás says :
The person who misses several Friday Prayers consecutively, has abandoned Islam.  (Ilm al Fiqh, Vol. II)
The Holy Prophet has described the merits of the Friday Prayer thus : 
The one who had [a] bath on Friday, cleaned himself fully, used oil and perfume, then went to the mosque early in the afternoon and took his place quietly without pushing or disturbing the people ; then offered the Sunnat prayer ; then listened to the sermon peacefully, he will have all his sins committed since the previous Friday forgiven. (Bukhàrì
According to Hadrat Ibn Umar, the Holy Prophet said: 
There are three types of men who come to offer the Friday Prayer : (1) He who comes and indulges in irrelevant talk : such a one does not gain anything beside this.(2) He who busies himself in meditation and supplications to Allàh, which Allàh may or may not grant.(3) He who takes his place quietly and peacefully : neither he disturbs the people nor hurts them in any way: this mans good behaviour becomes an expiation for his negligences till the next Friday and for three days more, for Allàh says :The one who does one good deed, gets the reward for ten good deeds. (6 :160) 
Again the Holy Prophet has said : 
The one who washes himself clean on Friday, then walks to mosque (instead of riding), then listens to the sermon peacefully, avoiding every frivolous act and utterance, gets the reward of one full year's worship on every step of one year's fasting and one year's prayer. (Tirmizí
Pre-requisites of Friday Prayer
The Shariah has enjoined a few pre-requisites which must be fulfilled for the Friday Prayer to become essential and valid for the people.These are of two kinds: 

(1)Pre-requisites of Essentiality

(2) Pre-requisites of Validity. 

1. Pre-requisites of Essentiality :

These are five in number : 

(i) Being a male : the Friday Prayer is not binding on the females. 

(ii) Being a free man : the Friday Prayer is not binding on the slave.

(iii) Being an adult sane person : the Friday Prayer is not binding on the child and the insane person.
(iv) Being a resident : the Friday Prayher is not binding on the traveller. 
(v) Being healthy and well : a sick or disabled person, who cannot go to the mosque, is exempted ; however, if a sick or disabled person can go to the mosque, he will be under obligation to attend the prayer. A person may be disabled owing to blindness old age, etc., or, he may be prevented by a rain-storm, or danger of enemy or a harmful animal from going to the mosque. 
Command in case Pre-requisites of Essentiality do not exist :
The Friday Prayer will become binding only on that person who fulfils all the five pre-requisites mentioned above, but if a person lacking all these, or some of these pre-requisites offers the Friday Prayer, his prayer will be valid and in order, and he will not have to offer the Zuhr Prayer that day.If, for example, a woman or a disabled person attends the Friday Prayer, her or his prayer will be perfectly in order and valid, and such a one will not have to offer the Zuhr Prayer. 

2. Pre-requisites of Validity

If the following five pre-requisites are not fulfilled, the Friday Prayer will not be valid.If in spite of this, some people offer it, they will have to offer the Zuhr Prayer as well. 

(i) MisrJami : A large town or habitation

(ii) Time of Zuhr Prayer

(iii)The Friday Sermon

(iv)Congregational service

(v) General call for the Prayer In case there is an Islamic government, another pre-requisite is that the Muslim ruler himself or a deputy appointed by him should organize the Friday Prayer.  (i) Misr Jámi : The Friday Prayer will not be valid if it is held in the jungle, or a village , or a village, or a temporary camp.Hadrat Alí has said : The Friday and the Id Prayers cannot be held except in large towns.(Author Abdur Razzàq) 
  A large town or habitation i[n] every such city where the number of the males upon whom the Friday Prayer is binding, is so large that no mosque in the town may accommodate them all together.
Friday Prayer in Villages
In view of the pre-requisite of Mr. Jámi, it is not correct to hold the Friday Prayer in every small village and habitation; the Muslims of the area should select a central place for the purpose and the people belonging to smaller villages and habitations should assemble there for offering the Prayer.Alláma Hummám says: The person living in the suburbs is duty bound, like the people of the city, to come and attend the Friday Prayer. (Fath al-Qadír) Hadrat  Àishah says : 

People used to come from the suburban habitations of Madína for the Friday Prayer, dusty and drenched with sweat.Once the Holy Prophet was present in the house when a man in such a state came to see him.The Holy Prophet said: Would that you had bath on this day! (Tirmizí)
(ii)Time of Zuhr Prayer
It is not valid to observe the Friday Prayer before or after the prescribed time of the Zuhr Prayer.If the time of Zuhr has elapsed, when the Friday Prayer is still in progress, the prayer willbe invalidated even though it involves the Final Sitting (Qádah) in which Tashahhud has been recited. The Friday Prayer cannot be performed later as a missed prayer. 
(iii)Khutbah (Sermon

The Sermon has to be delivered within the prescribed time limit before the congregational Prayer. If it is delivered after the congregational prayer or before the prescribed time, the Friday Prayer will not be valid. (Ilm al-Fiqh, Vol. II, p. 147).
  (iv) Congregational Service

There should be at least three adult males besides the Imám, who should remain present from the commencement of the Sermon to the completion of the prayer, and each of them should be fit to lead the prayer. The presence of females or of minor male children only is not enough.
(v) General Call for the Prayer
The Friday Prayer has to be offered publicly in a place where any and every Muslim may come to attend it without let or hindrance.If the prayer is held in a restricted place, for instance, a bungalow, where the common Muslims are not allowed to join in, or held behind closed doors, the prayer will not be valid. 
Pre-requisite of the Muslim Ruler According to Hidáyah and other Fiqh books, the presence of the Muslim ruler or his deputy is necessary for the establishment of the Friday Prayer. The object is that the ruler himself should attend the prayer as a duty and should organize it officially and make arrangements for keeping law and order in view of the big gathering.As for the countries where the rulers are non-Muslims, the Muslim population is not absolved from the duty of observing the Friday Prayer.They have to orgaanize and hold the prayer themselves by mutual will and consent ; the verdict of the jurists is clearly to the same effect. Sunnat Rakahs in the Friday Prayer 1. It is prescribed to clean and purify oneself on Friday, to have hair and nails, cut, to put on the best available dress, to use perfume, and attend the mosque early in the afternoon.The Holy Prophet has said

The person who has [a] bath on Friday, puts on the best available clothes, uses perfume if available, and comes for the prayer, and takes his place quietly without disturbing the people, then offers the prayer that Alláh has destined for him, and sits in perfect silence and peace from the time the Iákes his place till the completion of the prayer, he will have all his sins committed since the previous Friday expiated on this account. (Abú Dáúd)
2. If in spite of necessary preparations, a person is not able to attend the Friday Prayer due to error or negligence, he should offer four Fardrakahs of Zuhr and give away something in charity. Similarly the person who cannot attend the mosque on account of nursing a patient, or rainstorm, or danger of an enemy, should offer four Fard rakahs of Zuhr
3. It is preferable that the person who delivers the Sermon should lead the prayer as well , but another person may also lead the prayer provided that he has attended the Sermon.If a person who has not atended the Sermon leads the prayer, if will not be valid.(Durr-al-Mukhtar
4. It is advisable that all the people of a habitation should offer the Friday Prayer in the principal mosque of the place, but there is no harm if they offer the prayer in different mosques of a big city or town.(Bahr ar-Rà'iq) 
5.It is forbidden to offer the Zuhr Prayer before the Friday Prayer in a city or habitation where the Friday Prayer is usually held.If a sick or disabled person offers it, it will be an imperfect prayer, and he will have to offer it again after the Friday Prayer has been held.(Ilmal-Fiqh, Vol II). 
6.The sick and disabled persons upon whom Friday Prayer is not binding, should offer the Zuhr Prayer on Friday Prayer on Friday individually ; it is highly undersirable that they should offer it in congregation.(Durr al-Mukhtár). 7.The prayer should be somewhat longer than the Sermon. The Holy Prophet has said: 
The prolongation of the prayer and shortness of the Sermon are a sign and proof of the Imám's deep insight in religion : you should therefore offer a long prayer and deliver a short Sermon. (Muslim)
8. If a late-comer joins the Friday Prayer in the Final Sitting, or joins it after Sajdah Sahv in Tashahhud, his prayer will be valid.  He should complete his two rak'ahs independently after salutation by the Imám.

9.  One should start making preparations for the Friday Prayer from Thursday as was the practice of the Holy Prophet. (Mishkát)
Five good things are such that if a person can perform them all on the same day, Alláh will include him among the dwellers of Paradise :

10. On Friday one should spend as much of one's time as possible in the remembrance of Alláh, recitation of the Qurán asking for Alláh's forgiveness of one's sins, works of charity, visiting the sick and the graveyard, attending funerals and other works of public good.  According to Hadrat Abú Saìd Khudri, the Holy Prophet said :
Five good things are such that if a person can perform them all on the same day, Alláh will include him among the dwellers of Paradise :

1 visiting the sick,

2 attending the funerals, 
3 observing the fast, 
4 offering the Friday Prayer, 
5 setting the slave free.
According to another tradition reported by Hadrat Abù Saíd Khudri, the Holy Prophet said : 
The person who recites Surah Al-Kahf on Friday will have a bright light lit up for him till the next Friday. (Nasai) According to Hadrat Abu Hurairah, the Holy Prophet said: 
The person who recites Sùrah Ad-Dukhán on Friday night, will have seventy-thousand angels imploring Alláh for his forgiveness with the result that he will have all his sins forgiven. (Tirmizi) 
The Holy Prophet has also said: 
There is a blessed hour on Friday during which a person is granted by Alláh anything that he prays for. (Bukhári)
As to the specification of this hour, two of the views generally accepted are: (1) It begins from the time the Imám ascends the pulpit for delivering the sermon and lasts till the completion of the prayer,(2) it implies the last moments of Friday when the sun is about to set. 
One may pray to Alláh at both these times for fulfilment of one's lawful desires. 
11.It is desirable that one should reach the mosque as early in the afternoon as possible.The Holy Prophet has said : 
The person who has [a] bath on Friday and purifies himself fully, then comes to the mosque early, will be regarded as though he has sacrificed a camel; the one who comes a bit late, would be regarded as though the has sacrificed a cow or a buffalo ; the one who comes still later, will be regarded as though he has sacrificed a two horned ram ; and the one who comes last of all, will be regarded as though he has given away an egg in the way of Alláh.Then when the Imám comes out to deliver the Sermon, the angels leave the door of the mosque (and close the record-book) and take their places in order to listen to the Sermon and offer the prayer.(Bukhári, Muslim)
12.It is in accordance with the Sunnah to recite Sùrah Há Mim Sajdah (41) and Súrah Ad-Dahr (76) in the Fajr Prayer on Friday.
13. It is in accordance with the Sunnah to recite Súrah Al-Jum'ah (62) and Al-Munáfiqùn (62), or Surah Al-A'ala (87) and Al-Ghashiyah (88) in the Friday Prayer. 
14. One may take one's place quietly wherever one may find it and avoid jumping over the people's shoulders in search of a comfortable place, because this disturbs the people physically as well as mentally. According to Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbàs, the Holy Prophet said : 
The person who stands in the second row instead of the first row only with a view to avoid disturbing a fellow Muslim, is awarded a double reward as against the one standing in the front row. (Tabarànì).
15. On Friday one should invoke Alláh as often as possible for His blessings on the Holy Prophet, for the Holy Prophet has said : 
The best day for you is Friday because Adam was created on Friday and he died on Friday and Resurrection will take place on Friday. Therefore, you should invoke Alláh blessings for me frequently on this day, because your invocations in this regard are presented before me. The Companions asked, O Messenger of Allah! Even when your body will have decayed?The earth is forbidden to eat up a Prophet.
Regulations Relating to the Sermon

  1. The Imàm has to deliver the Sermon in two parts : in the first part he should instruct the people in religion, and exhort them to action; in the second he should recite a few verses of the Quràn, invoke Alahs blessings for the Holy Prophet, and pray for forgiveness of his Companions.
2. The preacher should prepare a suitable and comprehensive Sermon for every Friday and should deal with the problems facing the Muslims in the light of the Qurãn and the Sunnah, and teach the people the ways of solving and tackling those problems in the Islamic way. He should remind them of their religious duties and obligations and infuse into them the spirits of their faith and love of their community. It is permissible to read out a prepared sermon from the book, or deliver one of the Holy Prophet's Sermons. But the real object of the Friday Sermon is that the leader of the Muslims should instruct them in their religion in a natural, systematic and orgaaniased way, explain to them their obligations and responsibilities and afford them guidance in respect of the current problems in the light of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Therefore the preacher should not rest content with realing out sermons from the book, but should make an effort to explain and tackle the problems faced by the community and guide them as and when necessary. 
3. The preacher after delivering the first sermon should sit down on the pulpit for so long that three short verses or the words Subhãn-Allah may be recited thrice in the interval ; them he should stand up and deliver the second part of the sermon.In the first sermon he should give religious instructions in a spirited and degnified manner and exhort the audience to practice; in the second sermon he should recite some verses ofthe Qur'ãn, invoke Allãh Abbás.The Imám may also pray for the Muslims ruler of the time,but it is forbidden to exaggerate his praises and say things beyond the truth.(Ilm al Fiqh, Vol II,.148) 

4.  The Sermon should be somewhat shorter than the prayer, for it is undesirable to make the sermon unduly long.  The Holy Prophet has said :

The prolongation of the prayer and shortness of the sermon are an index of the Imãm's common sense and insight in religion ; you should, therefore, offer a long prayer and deliver a short sermon. (Muslim) 

5.  It is obligatory to listen to the sermon peacefully and with full attention, whether the listener is sitting near the Imàm or away from him.

6. It is desirable that one should sit close to the Imàm during the sermon and face towards him.  (Mishkàt)

7.  When the Imàm has stood up to deliver the sermon, no one should offer an individual prayer, nor should one engage in conversation, for it is forbidden to talk, offer prayer, busy oneself in meditation, eat, drink, greet or respond to greeting, or do anything which may distract one from the sermon ; even giving of religious instruction or exhorting others to do good is forbidden.  The Holy Prophet has said :

The person who talks when the sermon is in progress, is like a donkey loaded with books, and the one who tells another one to be quiet, during the sermon, has lost his own Friday Prayer. (Musnad Ahmad, Tabaràní)
One is, however, permitted to offer a missed prayer during the sermon, and one must do so if necessary.

8.  One may invoke Alláh's blessings for the Holy Prophet inaudibly when his name is mentioned in the sermon.

9.  In the second sermon, it is commendable to pray for the Holy Prophet's near and dear ones, his Companions, wives, especially the rightly-guided Caliphs, Hadrat Hamzah and Hadrat Abbás.  The Imám may also pray for the Muslims ruler of the time,but it is forbidden to exaggerate his praises and say things beyond the truth.  (Ilm al Fiqh, Vol II,.148)

10.  In the Sermon of the last Friday of Ramadán, though it is not forbidden to dwell on farewell themes, it is undesirable to make such themes an integral part of one's sermon persistently because no such thing has been reported from the Holy Prophet and his Companions, nor has it been mentioned in the authentic books of Fiqh.  Due to the prevailing practice of giving farewell sermons, people have wrongly started looking upon the last Friday of Ramadán (Jum'ah al-Wid) as of special religious significance, which is a misconception and needs to be eradicated.

11.  As soon as the sermon is over, Iq'mah for the prayer should be pronounced as was the practice in the Holy Prophet's time; it is forbidden to engage in worldly business between the sermon and the prayer.  If the Imam does so and prolongs the interval, for instance in taking food, or settling a commercial issue, he will have to deliver the sermon once again.  However, if he has to attend to an unavoidable religious matter, for instance, performing of Wudu, or Ghusl, which was necessary and he remembered of it after the sermon, there is no harm in observing the interval and no need to deliver the sermon again.

Use of Loud-Speaker in Prayer and Sermon
There is no harm if [a] loud-speaker is used in delivering the sermon, or even in offering the prayer, if necessary. Prohibition of Trade and BusinessAs soon as the first call is given for the Friday Prayer, all trade and business transactions should be suspended and one should hasten away to the mosque after making necessary preparations.According to the Qur'an , it is forbidden to carry on trade after the call for the Friday Prayer. It says : 

O Believers! when you hear the call to the Friday Prayer, hasten to the remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. (62 :9)
The commentators are agreed that in this verse remembrance of Allah means the Sermon, or the Sermon and the Prayer both, and the call is the Azan which is pronounced just before the Sermon (Khutbah), and not the Azan which is proclaimed much earlier to warn the people that the prayer time has begun.

According to Hadrat ibn Yazid, only the second Azãn used to be pronounced at the time when of the Holy Prophet, and it was prounced at the time when Imãm had taken his place on the pulpit. Later on, in the time of Caliph Abu Bakr and Umar when the population of Madinah grew, they introduced another Azan which was pronounced at Az-Zaurã, (a house in the bazar of Madinah). (Bukhari, Abu Dãud, Nasãi

Allãma Shabbir Ahmad Usmãn has explained this verse thus : 

The call for the prayer means the Azan that was pronounced in the period of therevelation of the Qurãn in front of the Imãm.The other Azãn was introduced later in the time of Caliph Uthmãn by the consensus of the Companions, but as for the prohibition of business and sale transactions, the effect of this Azãn is similar to that of the former, because they were both enforced for the same purpose. However, the command in respect of the Azãn enjoyed earlier is imperative and binding in nature, whereas in case of the other Azãn it is only presumptive and interperative in character. 
Prescribed Procedure for Delivering the Sermon
The Khatib (Preacher), after attaining necessary purity, should take his place on the pulpit facing the audience and the Muazzin should pronounce the Azan facing him.As soon as the Azan is over, the Khatib should stand up on the pulpit and after reciting Taawwuz inaudibly, should start delivering the Sermon in a loud voice. First of all, he should glorify Allah Almighty, then bear witness to His Unity and Prophethood of the holy Prophet Muhammad, and then instruct the audience in religion briefly ina dignified and spirited manner.  After this he should sit down and obseve a short pause.  Then he should stand up again for the second sermon, in which he should glorify Allah and bear witness again, recite a few verses of the Qur'an and invoke Allah's blessings for the Holy Prophet and pray for his Companions, especially for the rightly-guided Caliphs, Hadrat Hamzah and hadrat Abbas, and last of all for the Muslim people of the world, and then bring the sermon to completion. Immediately after that he should stand up for the prayer. 

Sermons of the Holy Prophet

Some portions of the Sermons delivered by the Holy Prophet have been preserved in the Hadith Collections. A persual of these will show that they were beautifully worded, comprehensive, brief, and effective and forceful in style. Below we give a specimen along with its translation for the benefit of preachers : 

A comprehensive Sermon of Tabék Campaign

After glorifying Allah the Holy Prophet said : 

[A R A B I C   T E X T]

After this he prayed for Allah's forgiveness thrice and brought the Sermon to [a] conclusion.


1. The most truthful of the discourses is the Book of Allah 
2. The most trustworthy word is Taqua (fear of God) 
3. The best of the communities is the Community of Prophet Abraham 
4. The best way of life is the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (Allah peace be upon him). 
5. Remembrance of Allah is the most glorious of all things. 
6. The best of all narrations is the Quran. 
7. The best acts are those requiring the highest degree of will and determination. 
8.  The worst acts are those based on innovation. 
9. The best way of life is the one adopted by the Prophets of Allah
10. The best glorious death is the death of the martyr. 
11.  The most wretched blindness consists in going astray after finding the Right Way.
12.  The best of acts is the done that yields benefit. 
13.  The best guidance is that which the people may be able to follow. 
14.  The worst blindness is the blindness of the heart. 
15.  The upper hand is better than the lower one. 
16.  The less which can meet one's needs is better than the more which can cause neglectfulness. 
17.  The worst excuse is that which is offered at the point of death. 
18.  The worst remorse is the remorse of the Day of Judgment. 
19.  Some people come for the Friday Prayer but their hearts are stuck up behind. 
20.  And they are able to remember Allah but little. 
21.  The sin of the lying tongue is the gravest of all sins. 
22.  Real richness is the richness of the heart. 
23.  The best provision is the provision of Taqua (fear of God) 
24.  The basis of all wisdom and knowledge is the fear of Allah Almighty. 
25.  Faith is the best thing to be cultivated and entrenched in the heart. 
26.  Doubt and vacillation are an index of unbelief. 
27.  Wailing over the dead is a practice of ignorance. 
28.  Stealing and embezzlement are the provision for Hell.

29. Getting drunk is to burn in the fire.
30. (Nonsense) versification is satanic. 
31. Drinking is the source of all evil 
32. The worst that one can eat is the property of the orphan. 
33. Fortune is he who learns from the mistakes of others. 
34. Wretched is he who is wretched by birth. 
35.  And each one of you is to be buried deep under the soil. 
36.  And the deeds of each one will be judged in the Hereafter. 
37.  An act is judged by its fruit. 
38.  The worst dream is the false dream. 
39.  That which is approaching is very near. 
40.  Abusing a believer is sinful. 
41.  And fighting a believer is a sign of disbelief. 
42.  Backbiting a believer is disobedience of Allah. 
43. A believer's property is an unlawful for the other person as his blood. 
44.  The one who is indifferent to Allah is ignored by Allah. 
45.  Allah keeps the secrets of him who keeps the secrets of others. 
46.  The one who forgives others is forgiven by Allah. 
47.  He who suppresses his anger is rewarded by Allah. 
48.  He who endures a loss with patience is rewarded by Allah. 
49.  The habitual fault-finder is disgraced by Allah. 
50.  Allah multiplies the rewards of him who adopts the attitude of patience. 
51.  And the one who adopts the attitude of disobedience is chastised by Allah.

Addendum (notes)

* This definition is according to the Hanafites.There are other definitions as well ; for instance, a city is Misr Jami by which one may exactly determine the size of a city for the purpose of holding the Friday Prayer.Two things, however, clearly stand out in these definitions :

* (a) the Friday Prayer being an important obligatory prayer, should be attended by the largest possible number of the Muslims and none should be deprived of its great benefits and blessings ; (b) the people should not observe the Friday Prayer in small habitations, in a scattered way, but should offer it together at a central place where the maximum people can gather together for the purpose. 
Maulana Abul Maududi has explained the concept of a large city and not in scattered small habitations, which will defeat its very purpose.The term Misr Jami itself implies such a central place where people from the suburban small habitations can gather together to offer the Friday Prayer.The number of shops and stalls and the size of the population and other things have nothing to do with the largeness of the town, nor have they any direct bearing on the validity and establishment of the Friday Prayer: It only requires a central habitation where people may come together from all sides.If there is such a big city, which has the position of a central place, well and good, otherwise the Muslim ruler can appoint any habitation as Misr Jami and the suburban people asked to offer their Friday Prayer there. This system will not only be in consonance with the authentic traditions but also according to the Hanafite viewpoint. The jurists have defined the dependent habitations. (Tawabi Misr) differently, fixing the limit at two, six and nine miles respectively.Others say that the dependent habitation/span> in the circle would be that from wherfe a person could travel to Misr Jami and after observing the Friday Prayer could return home before the nightfall. This definition has been approved by the author of Bada and is also supported by Hadith. According to a tradition narrated by Hadrat Abu Hanifah in Tirmizi, the Holy Prophet said : 
The Friday prayer is obligatory on the person who after observing it can return home before the nightfall. 
Hadrat Aishah says:
People used to come from their halting places and highlands for the Friday Prayer. (Bukhari)
Hadrat Abu Hurairah says : The Holy Prophet said : 
Listen! Some of you take their flocks of goats a mile or two miles away in search of food, but when Friday comes, they do not bother to come here to offer the Prayer. (He repeated this sentence thrice, and then said) The heart of such a one will sealed.
* These traditions and elucidations of the jurists show that the range of the dependent habitations/span> is up to six or seven miles, from where people can go to Misr Jami and can return home after the Friday Prayer before the nightfall.Therefore it is incumbent upon the people living within this range to visit Misr Jami for the purpose of offering the Friday Prayer. This has further been elucidated by Allama Ibn Hummam thus : 
* A person living anywhere in a dependent habitation is duty-bound, like the inhabitant of the central place, to come and offer the Friday Prayer. (Fath al-Qadir quoted by Sharh al-Inayah Ala Hidayah) (Tafhmat, Vol II, pp. 498-501) 
* According to the Ahl al-Hadith the restriction of the city or a large habitation is meaningless : the Friday Prayer becomes incumbent wherever a few men can get together for the congregational service.They say that in response to Hadrat Abu Hurairah's letter asking whether Friday Prayer should be held at Bahrain or not, Hadrat Umar wrote that he should offer the Friday Prayer wherever the happened to be. (Ibn Khuzaimah).
* And Allama Ibn Hazm says : When the Holy Prophet came to Madinah, it consisted of small scattered habitations ; the Holy Prophet got the Mosque built in the habitation of Bani Malik bin Najjar and offered the Friday Prayer there, whereas it was neither a big habitation nor a city then/span>. (Islam Ta Shami says :  The Muslims of a country which is under non-Muslims domination, have to organize and hold the Friday and 'Id Prayer themselves. It implies only this that the prayer should be comparatively longer than the sermon ; the prayer, however, has to be observed in moderate length in view of the weak and aged followers.According to a tradition in Sahih Muslim, the Holy Prophet  Obviously all these can be done and observed only on Fridays. 
* Obviously, the real purpose of the Friday Sermon can be achieved only if the preacher addresses the audience in the language they know.But the jurists differ in the matter of addressing the people in a langauage other than Arabic.As a matter of fact, the first sermon which is meant for educating the people, may be given in any language other than Arabic, the second part must invariably be in Arabic.Arabic may be used in both the parts on the occassions of international gathering of the Muslims.Maulana Maududi has expressed the following opinion in this connection :  The desirable thing would be that the second sermon is invariable given in Arabic and entirely devoted to the glorification of Allah Almighty, invocvations for blessings on the Holy Prophet, his near and dear ones and his Companions and the recitation of the verses of the Quran. The other part which is meant for instructing the people in religion and acquainting them with the teachings of Islam with regard to the current affairs, should be in a language which is understood by the majority of the audience.For the purpose also, only those languages should be selected, which enjoy an international status among the Muslims, e.g. Urdu in th Indo-Pak sub-Continent as against the provincial languages and dialects, because Urdu is understood by the Muslims of all the provinces.However, in the far flung areas where Urdu is not generally understod, local dialects may also be used for the sermons ; but whenever there is an inernational gathering of the Muslims, Arabic only should be use for the purpose/span>. 

* The Ahl-al-Hadith scholars also support the view that the sermons may be given in any language other than Arabic. Maulana Abdus Salam Bastawi says :  The sermon is meant for instructing the people, and instruction can be useful only when it is given in the language of the people.The sermon, therefore, should be given in the language people can understand.Thus, if the audience can understand Arabic, they should be addressed in Arabic, otherwise in the language they know. It is not obligatory to give the sermon in Arabic only  if one has to address in Arabic, the sermon should also be translated into the language the people understand. 

* In this connection Maulana Maududi writes :  The sermon has not been prescribed for the purpose that the Muslims should formally attend it before the prayer once a week as the Christians do in the church, but it was primarily meant to infuse a motivating spirit into the collective life of the Muslims.Its real object was that they should get together once a week when they should be instructed in the Divine Commands, imparted religious education, and their individual and social maladies and weaknesses cured and reformed, and their attention drawn towards matters of national interest and good.Another object was that the Muslim Head of the State should present his government

* It is not necessary that one should be in the prescribed state of purity for delivering the sermon. Even if a person delivers the sermon in the state of impurity owing to sexual intercourse, he need not repeat it. 

* Mufti Muhammad Shafi after dealing with this subject writes : From the elucidations of the jurists and action of the Companions in connection with the change of the Qiblah, it apears that no harm is done to the prayer.(Aalat Jadidah ke Shari Ahkam). 

*Maulana Maududi has given sound arguments supporting the view that the use of the loud-speaker is not only permissible but commendable. He writes:  On the basis of these arguments I consider the use of the loud-speaker in the prayer as not only pemissible but even commendable.I have a strong feeling that the Holy Prophet would have certainly made use of the loud-speaker in the prayer, Azan and the sermon had it been available in his time, just as the adopted the Iranian technique of digging the trench during the Battle of the Trench.  (Tafhimat, Vol, II,p.461)  to a tradition in Sahih Muslim, when the Holy Prophet gave the sermon his voice would rise and his eyes would become red with the intensity of feeling, and it appeared as if he was warning his audience against the enemy who was about to attack them. 

*For so long as one may recite Subhan-Allah thrice.

Everyday Fiqh (Vol.1) by Abdul Aziz Kamal ©1986 published by Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Ltd., 13-E Shah Alam Market, Lahore, Pakistan